We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 20 consecutive subjects with refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 9 refractory and 11 relapsed) treated at our institution with a fludarabine, cytarabine and etoposide (FCE) salvage regimen. Of 20 patients with refractory/relapsed AML, 15 (75%) achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete peripheral blood count recovery (CRi), including 14 CR and 1 CRi. The 4- and 8-week treatment-related mortality (TRM) for all patients during reinduction was 0 and 5%, respectively. Eight of 15 patients (53%) who successfully achieved CR were able to undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a 0% non-relapse mortality rate. FCE is a new, well-tolerated, anthracycline-free regimen, which has a promising activity in relapsed/refractory AML and is associated with low TRM in this high-risk population.

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