Background: T cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a rare morphological variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), accounting for 1-3% of all DLBCLs. However, its impact on treatment outcome and prognosis is still not clearly defined. Methods: We compared the clinical outcomes between THRLBCL and DLBCL, not otherwise specified (NOS), in patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Results: Data from 11 patients with THRLBCL were matched to 33 patients with DLBCL-NOS. Patients were matched by five established prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Index, including age, Ann Arbor stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase level and the number of extranodal involvement. There was no significant difference in the complete response rate to R-CHOP between THRLBCL (91%, 10/11) and DLBCL-NOS (97%, 32/33; p = 0.442). The 3-year event-free survival rate was 81% for both THRLBCL and DLBCL-NOS (p = 0.813). The 3-year overall survival rates were 75 and 81%, respectively (p = 0.719). Conclusions: The treatment outcomes of THRLBCL are similar to those of DLBCL-NOS. The addition of rituximab to CHOP seems to be helpful for the management of THRLBCL, as it is for DLBCL-NOS.

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