Introduction: Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) down-regulation by preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is a general phenomenon in different types of solid tumours, but research on the correlation between PRAME and TRAIL gene expression in leukaemia patients is rare. Method: PRAME and TRAIL expression was detected in bone marrow samples from 80 newly diagnosed acute leukaemia (AL) patients and 40 chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients using TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR methods, and a linear correlation analysis was performed on their levels of expression. A total of 15 normal bone marrow samples from individuals with non-malignant haematological diseases served as normal controls. Results: PRAME expression was higher in both AL and CML patients compared to controls (both p < 0.001). CML patients in both blast crisis (BC) and the accelerated phase (AP) had significantly higher PRAME levels than CML patients in the chronic phase (CP) (p = 0.006 and 0.0461, respectively). TRAIL expression was higher in both the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) group and the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) group than in the controls (p = 0.039 and 0.047, respectively). In contrast, CML patients had lower TRAIL levels than controls (p = 0.043), and TRAIL expression in CML patients in the advanced phases (BC and AP) was significantly lower than in CML-CP patients (p = 0.006). In CML patients, there was a significant inverse correlation (Spearman's R = -0.6669, p < 0.0001) between PRAME and TRAIL gene expression, while a greater significant inverse correlation was found in patients in the advanced phases (BC and AP) (R = -0.6764). In addition, no correlation was observed in AML and ALL patients. Conclusion: The simultaneous detection of PRAME and TRAIL gene expression may be helpful to monitor condition changes in leukaemia patients and evaluate therapeutic effects in clinical practice, particularly in CML patients.

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