Background and Aims: Information about the extent to which anemia is related to thalassemia and iron deficiency (ID) is not available in Vietnam. This study investigated the burden of anemia in relation to thalassemia and ID among Vietnamese pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thua Thien Hue, Central Vietnam. Blood samples taken from 399 pregnant women with a gestational age <12 weeks were analyzed. Anemia was defined as Hb levels <11 g/dl, and ID as ferritin values <15 ng/ml. Results: Out of 399 participants, 77 (19.3%) were anemic. While the prevalence of ID was 20.1%, the prevalence of ID anemia was 6.0%. The overall prevalence of thalassemia was 7.3%. Of the 77 anemic women, 24 (31.2%) had ID, and 20 (26.0%) had thalassemia genes. The rest (42.9%) were anemic due to unknown causes. Conclusions: The results indicate that ID remains a significant health burden among the study population, together with anemia caused by unknown factors. Thalassemias appear not to contribute to a great extent to anemia among Vietnamese pregnant women. Other causes need to be investigated further in order to develop an effective control program for anemia within the population.