Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare complication observed after liver transplantation and only a handful of cases have been reported until now. We report a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) after liver transplantation in a 50-year-old man. The case presentation was postodontectomy bleeding with an associative abnormal coagulation test 85 months after liver transplantation. A routine blood test, bone marrow test, chromosome analysis and examination of PML/RARα chimeric gene confirmed the diagnosis of APL and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Induction chemotherapy with all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide and daunorubicin was given to this patient and complete remission was achieved. The patient was subjected to DA (daunorubicin combined with cytarabine) and MA (mitoxantrone combined with cytarabine) regimens after remission induction to consolidate the chemotherapy for two courses of treatment, and subsequently subjected to arsenous acid chemotherapy on a periodic basis. Twenty-two months into the follow-up, sustained bone marrow remission was observed with the adapted treatment regimen.

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