Myeloid colony-stimulating factors (M-CSFs), which include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), regulate the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells. Their use has an important role in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Guidelines for the use of colony stimulating factors have been published by the American Society of Oncology (ASCO) in 1996 and have been updated several times, most recently in 2006. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are regarded as the highest grade of evidence in clinical research and as such, compared to individual studies, they have more power in answering unresolved clinical issues. In this review, our aim is to evaluate the role of M-CSFs in hematologic malignancies based on meta-analyses conducted in the field.

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