Aplastic anemia is a rare bone marrow failure disorder. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) are the main therapeutic modalities currently used to treat patients with aplastic anemia. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are regarded as the highest level of evidence and as such aid practitioners in solving clinical questions. The objective of this review is to assess the base of evidence for the common practice and the current guidelines for the management of aplastic anemia. It focuses on data obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs conducted in this field. Specifically, it focuses on four major therapeutic questions: the roles of alloHCT, IST, hematopoietic growth factors and supportive care.

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