Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the triad of nail dystrophy, mucosal leukopla- kia, and reticular pigmentation. Bone marrow failure is the principal cause of early mortality, and stem cell transplantation is the only cure for these patients. However, the results of conventional hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients with DC are poor because of the high incidence of transplant-related complications. We describe the successful treatment of a 21-year-old male with DC by nonmyeloablative HSCT from a matched unrelated donor. The gene responsible for the X-linked form of DC was screened and hemizygosity for the mutation Gln31Lys was found, which is consistent with the diagnosis. The conditioning regimen consisted of only fludarabine and antithymocyte globulin. Additionally, a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was administered with cyclosporine A (CSA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The regimen was well tolerated, no severe posttransplantation complications were observed, and engraftment was rapid and complete (granulocytes on day +11 and platelets on day +13). Seven months after HSCT, the patient developed GVHD of the liver after tapering CSA which was successfully treated with prednisolone, CSA, and MMF. At the time of reporting, 3 years after HSCT, the patient remained in good clinical condition with minimal signs of chronic GVHD of the oral mucosa. Thus, we conclude that a low-intensity conditioning regimen might be sufficient to induce permanent engraftment by using matched unrelated donor HSCT in DC patients and may avoid severe organ toxicity. Although allogeneic HSCT in patients with DC will not cure the underlying genetic defect it may significantly prolong survival through effective therapy for hematologic complications.

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