Background/Aims: βS-Haplotype prevalence and its associations with clinical and hematological characteristics were assessed in Brazilian children with sickle cell anemia or Sβ⁰-thalassemia. Methods: A retrospective randomized cohort study was undertaken with 208 SS and 13 Sβ⁰-thalassemia children derived from the Newborn Screening Program of the state of Minas Gerais. βS-Haplotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Results: Thirty-nine percent of the SS subjects had the CAR/CAR genotype, 33% had CAR/Ben, 24% had Ben/Ben, 1% had CAR/Atp, 1% had Ben/Atp, and 1% had Arab-Indian/Ben; 1% could not be characterized. Of the Sβ⁰-thalassemia children, 5 were CAR/undefined, 2 were Ben/undefined, and 1 was CAM/undefined. There was no significant association between βS-haplotypes and the total Hb, Hb F, MCV, MCH, WBC, and reticulocyte count among the SS children. Likewise, no significant association was detected between βS-haplotypes and the frequency of acute chest syndrome episodes, blood transfusions, splenic sequestration, or cerebrovascular disease (high-risk/conditional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography or clinical stroke). A limited number of Sβ⁰-thalassemia children precluded valid analyses. Conclusions: The prevalence of βS-haplotypes in this study is in agreement with the historical records of African slaves brought to the state of Minas Gerais. Furthermore, βS-haplotypes CAR and Ben were not associated with any analyzed feature of children with sickle cell anemia.