New indications and conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have emerged in the last 10 years. Previous studies have shown the association of HSCT with late effects such as sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disorders following HSCT in a population considering these new trends. Sixty-one individuals 1–10 years after allogeneic HSCT were surveyed using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for sleep disorders. Factors related to conditioning and graft-versus-host disease were collected from medical records. A prevalence of sleep disorders of 26.2% was found. Busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning was an independent risk factor in a multivariate analysis (relative risk, RR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.1–12.6; p = 0.03), which also included sex (RR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.0–5.7; p = 0.05) and age (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99–1.07; p = 0.11). Sleep disorders were frequent following HSCT. Patients who were treated with busulfan-cyclophosphamide had a higher risk of developing this complication. Female sex was also possibly a risk factor.

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