Background: Aplastic anemia (AA) is rarely described after a diagnosis of autoimmune disease (aID). Aims: To assess the prevalence of prior aID in patients with AA recorded in the registry of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and to evaluate treatment and outcome. Methods: 1,251 AA patients from 18 EBMT centers were assessed. Results: Fifty patients (4%) were eligible: 22 males and 28 females with a median age of 46 years at the diagnosis of aID and of 51 years at the diagnosis of AA. Information on the treatment of AA was available in 49 patients: 38 received only immunosuppressive therapy (IST), 8 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) – 6 as first-line therapy and 2 after failure of IST – whilst 3 patients had a spontaneous recovery. After a median follow-up of 3.19 years, 32 patients were alive, including 7 of the 8 patients who underwent HSCT. Only 6 of 32 patients who were alive at the last follow-up were receiving IST for AA. Conclusions: Most cases of AA following aID benefitted from IST or HSCT if a matched donor was available. Further prospective investigation is needed to assess the effects of IST on the outcome of underlying aID.

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