Mild-to-moderate anemia often develops in the setting of acute or chronic immune activation and is termed anemia of chronic disease (ACD) or anemia of inflammation. Anemia of chronic disease is the second most common type of anemia (after anemia of iron deficiency) and results in increased morbidity and mortality of the underlying disease. Anemia of chronic disease is mediated by inflammatory cytokines and is characterized by low serum iron (hypoferremia) and often increased reticuloendothelial stores of iron. Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron homeostasis and its synthesis is inhibited by iron deficiency and stimulated by inflammation. The serum hepcidin level is useful in identifying iron deficiency in patients with ACD. Successful treatment of the underlying disease improves ACD. If that is not possible and if anemia is symptomatic, treatment with erythropoietic agents, supplemented with iron if necessary, is helpful in many cases.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.