Hemospermia is usually a symptom of urological relevance, however it may have also a medical and hematological significance and has been reported in congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Because of this symptom’s negative psychological impact on the patient, it is likely that the condition is underplayed and therefore underdiagnosed. During the years 1967–2003 we had the opportunity to see 3 patients with hemospermia on a congenital bleeding disorder: a patient with hemophilia A, another with prothrombin deficiency and finally a patient with von Willebrand disease type I. All patients were heterosexual. In all instances the course was benign since it required administration of substitution therapy on only 2 occasions. Rest and abstinence from sexual activity appeared to be helpful. The first patient had other signs and symptoms compatible with the diagnosis of urethritis due to Escherichia coli and he underwent a course of antibiotic therapy. The other 2 cases appeared to be idiopathic since no associated condition was found. Urinary cytology, rectal examination, prostate sonography and prostate-specific antigen were normal in all cases. The rarity of hemospermia in congenital bleeding disorders remains unexplained, although the strong perineal and sphincter muscles may exercise a compressive hemostatic effect which could prevent or reduce bleeding.

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