Treatment for multiple myeloma typically is chemotherapy, high-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation or radiation. Thalidomide shows promise, but to improve knowledge and understanding of this drug, more clinical data is required. Workshops designed to propose new studies providing much needed data on the use of thalidomide as first-line therapy, as maintenance therapy and as treatment for refractory or relapsed disease are reported here. Thalidomide has been shown to be effective in previously untreated patients as monotherapy (36% remission), although greater remission is seen in combination therapy, for example, thalidomide with dexamethasone (72% remission). Thalidomide is an interesting maintenance therapy. It has the advantages of being effective in the bone marrow and having a long-lasting effect but suffers because of its significant side-effect profile; however, it is tolerated by most patients. The adverse effects are thought to be dose-limiting, and most are seen in all patients at the beginning of treatment. Further clinical evidence is needed to determine the effectiveness of thalidomide as maintenance therapy in patients with multiple myeloma, having been shown to be active against refractory multiple myeloma, even in patients who relapse after high-dose chemotherapy. The workshop acknowledged the problems associated with designing a phase III study, and it is clear that many areas need to be addressed in the use of thalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma.