Today many patients with cancer have indwelling long-term central venous catheters. Benefits from catheter use include increased ease of administration of either chemotherapy or other drugs. However, these patients are prone to a number of complications, including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and infection. Two kinds of catheter-related thrombi may develop: sleeve thrombi developing on the outside of intravenous catheters and occlusive DVT. Recent studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with arm DVT is high, and it is close to that observed in cohorts of patients with lower-extremity DVT. Accordingly, some kind of prophylaxis seems to be warranted. Furthermore, patients with confirmed catheter-related DVT should receive long-term anticoagulant therapy.

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