Thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation are common complications of cancer. Specific conditions associated with cancer such as stasis due to immobilization or blood flow obstruction, surgery, infections, endothelium damage due to chemotherapeutic agents and abnormalities of blood coagulation contribute to the hypercoagulable and thrombophilic state of cancer patients. This procoagulant state in cancer arises mostly from the capacity of tumor cells to express and release procoagulant activities (cancer procoagulant and tissue factor). Decreased levels of inhibitors of coagulation, impaired fibrinolysis, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and an acquired activated protein C resistance contribute to the hypercoagulable state. The activation of coagulation is also implicated in tumor proliferation through interactions of coagulation with inflammation and increased tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Laboratory diagnosis of the thrombophilic state include (1) elevation of clotting factors, fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products, hyperfibrinogenemia and thrombocytosis and (2) elevation of specific markers of activation of coagulation: fibrinopeptide A, fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimers. However, none of the tests has any predictive value for the occurrence of thrombotic events in one individual patient. In patients with venous thromboembolism a noninvasive screening for occult cancer is able to detect a relatively high incidence of hidden cancer and the search for thrombophilia seems important in patients without known cancer.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.