A nitroxylated analog of daunorubicin, ruboxyl (RBX), showed low toxicity but significant lympholytic effect in preclinical evaluations. A series of studies in vitro and in animals demonstrate that RBX is a putative agent in the treatment of many neoplasms. We report the results of a study in mice in which RBX showed selective B-lymphocyte immunosuppression. On the basis of this experience, RBX was administered to 3 patients with multiple myeloma and two patients with Waldenström’s disease. The results of this pilot clinical study show that this compound has good activity and low myelotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, but seems to be characterized by a threatening immunosuppressive effect.

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