A non-myeloablative conditioning protocol containing dibromomannitol (DBM/cytosine arabinoside/cyclophosphamide) has been applied to 36 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from sibling donors. Risk factors include: accelerated phase (10 patients), older age (17 patients over >40 years) and long interval between diagnosis and BMT (27 months on average). Severe mucositis did not occur. Venoocclusive liver disease was absent. Infectious complications were rare. Although grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was present in 9 (25%) cases, there were only 2 serious (III–IV) ones. Chronic GVHD occurred in 25 (69%) cases, preceded by acute GVHD in 9 of the 25 affected patients. Early hematological relapse, 7–29 weeks after BMT, developed in 6 patients (17.6%). No relapse was noted in the completely chimeric patients, however molecular genetic residual disease was observed in 6 patients, in most of them after transient short-term mixed chimeric state. Overall actual survival rate is 83.3% for the 36 cases, and leukemia-free survival is 72.2% for the 34 engrafted patients.

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