Central nervous system disorders are an important complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We have recently performed cerebral angiography to examine central nervous system dysfunction in a 22-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had undergone BMT. Angiography demonstrated multiple stenoses and occlusions in the peripheral branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, a pattern similar to that seen in vasculitis. She was thought to most likely have cytomegalovirus (CMV) vasculitis, but other forms of vasculitis, such as angiitis-like-syndrome-associated graft-versus-host disease could not be excluded. This case suggests that CMV vasculitis may cause central nervous system dysfunction after BMT and that imaging studies may provide useful information about central nervous system disorders in these patients.