Dysfibrinogenemia accounts for approximately 0.7% of thrombophilia in patients with venous thromboembolic disease. In 20% of these patients, plasma thrombophilic dysfibrinogen is below 1.0 mg/ml, defining hypodysfibrinogenemia. We describe a young female patient, in whom hypodysfibrinogenemia was the cause of several severe thromboembolic events which occurred even under oral anticoagulation monitored by a standard prothrombin time (PT) test. In this patient, the standard PT test according to Quick underestimated the plasma coagulability in vivo, presumably due to the low levels of dysfunctional fibrinogen as the substrate of the thromboplastin reagent. A PT test supplemented with bovine plasma fibrinogen (Thrombotest) revealed lower fibrinogen-independent international normalized ratio (INR) values in the proposita on oral anticoagulation compared to a control group with eufibrinogenemia. Monitoring therapy with the fibrinogen-independent Thrombotest secured safe anticoagulation in this patient. We suggest to consider PT tests with exogenous fibrinogen (e.g. Thrombotest) to monitor oral anticoagulation in the rare thrombophilic patients with hypodysfibrinogenemia.