A patient with refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation developed pancytopenia and a concurrent interstitial pneumonia 110 days after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow examination showed 0.4% giant proerythroblasts and 86.2% granulocytes, some of them large with a bizarre configuration and the others of normal size. Serum folate level was found low, 0.6 ng/ml. Immunocytochemistry with a B19-specific monoclonal antibody MAB8292 revealed B19 capsid antigen only in erythroblasts and large, bizarre granulocytes, but not in granulocytes of normal size. In situ hybridization of bone marrow cells using digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes detecting parvovirus B19 also demonstrated positive signals in 8.5% of marrow cells. Parvovirus B19 DNA was isolated from the serum and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of this patient by the polymerase chain reaction. These findings suggest that neutropenia may be caused by an involvement with parvovirus B19 though a deficiency of folic acid may have in part contributed to the genesis of neutropenia in the patient. The relevance of parvovirus B19 to the interstitial pneumonia remains unclear.