Human stem cell growth factor (SCGF) produced by a myeloid cell line, KPB-M15, exhibits species-specific hematopoietic activities. However, KPB-M15-conditioned medium induced colony formation of mouse bone marrow cells. KPB-M15-derived colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was purified through Butyl-Toyopearl 650c and Cu2+ chelating-Sepharose 6B chromatography. TSK-G3000SW gel filtration of the purified preparation presented 3 distinct peaks around Vo, 150 kD and 85 kD. Gel fractions extracted from SDS-PAGE had macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-specific amino acid sequences. PCR, Northern hybridization and ELISA demonstrated that KPB-M15 cells secreted a significant amount of M-CSF and IL-6. Anti-M-CSF but not anti-IL-6 antibody abrogated CSA in KPB-M15-CM. IL-6 hardly synergized with M-CSF to enhance colony formation. Collectively, M-CSF is a sole CSA for murine hematopoietic progenitor cells in KPB-M15-CM. This is the first report of a human myeloid cell line, KPB-M15, constitutively producing M-CSF in addition to SCGF and IL-6. It can be useful in investigating the mechanism of production of M-CSF.