The adoption of endometrial cytology as a diagnostic procedure has been hampered in the past by difficulties arising in interpreting the cellular findings due to a number of factors (such as excess blood, cellular overlapping, and the complex physiology of endometrium). Recently, the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC), with its ability to remove blood and mucus and to distribute cells uniformly in a thin layer on the slide, has provided an opportunity to reevaluate the role of endometrial cytology. LBC samples are easier to screen compared to conventional ones, due to a smaller screening area and an excellent quality of cell preparations. LBC by using peculiar cytoarchitectural features is a useful tool in the cellular diagnosis and follow-up of abnormalities, which, however, remains complementary to histopathology and to the emerging molecular diagnostic cytopathology. This review discusses these various entities and takes into consideration the ancillary techniques that may be useful in the diagnostic procedure. Herein, we also summarize the process and rationale by which updates were made to the standardized terminology in 2018 and outline the contents of the new Bethesda-style classification (the Yokohama system) for the endometrial cytology.

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