Introduction: The aim of the study was to analyze the published evidence for the use of fallopian tube brush cytology for the early detection of extrauterine serous gynecological cancer. Methods: We systematically searched the literature and, additionally, cross-checked on the bibliographies of selected articles. The inclusion criteria involved studies assessing the utility of fallopian tube brush cytology and its applications in the diagnosis, screening, or follow-up of extrauterine serous gynecological cancer. Results: The search strategy resulted in 21 abstracts or full-text articles, 5 of which met the inclusion criteria. The year of publication ranged from 2016 to 2022, and a total of 193 fallopian tube samples were investigated. Cytobrush, Tubebrush©, and Cytuity™ were used to obtain salpingeal samples for liquid-based cytology evaluation. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that, at present, there is a lack of satisfying evidence-based data in the literature which would support the implementation of fallopian tube brush cytology as an adjunctive tool for early detection of extrauterine serous gynecological cancer. Thus, we believe that there is need for well-designed clinical studies to assess the effectiveness and diagnostic accuracy of the method as well as to validate the cytological criteria for the diagnosis and prediction of gynecological malignancies.

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