Introduction: Chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare, benign cartilage-producing tumor, typically affecting the epiphysis of long bones in skeletally immature individuals. There have been only limited case reports describing the cytomorphologic features of this tumor, and thus the cytopathologic diagnostic criteria are controversial. Herein, we report the cytologic findings of 10 CB cases, discuss the diagnostic criteria and critical differential diagnosis, along with a comprehensive review of the literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective search of our cytopathology and surgical pathology databases for cases diagnosed as CB that had corresponding cytology specimens from four large medical institutions. All available cytopathology specimens were retrieved and reviewed. Clinicopathologic and radiologic data were recorded. Results: Ten cases were retrieved from 8 patients aged 15–42 years (mean, 24 years), five of whom were males. Eight cases represented primary tumors while 2 cases were recurrences. Three cases occurred in the femur, two cases occurred in the humerus, while 1 case occurred in each of the glenoid, talus, and proximal phalanx of the 3rd toe. The cytologic diagnosis of CB was achieved in 7 cases. The neoplastic mononuclear cells were present in all cases and their cytologic features were similar. These cells displayed round to oval eccentric nuclei, evenly distributed chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli; few of which had nuclear indentations. Multinucleated giant cells were present in 9 cases (90%). Fragments of chondromyxoid matrix were present in 4 cases on cytologic preparations (40%). Cell blocks were available in 8 cases. Mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells were present in all adequate cell blocks and their cytologic features were identical to those seen in the smears. The chondroid matrix was present in only three of the adequate cell blocks (43%). Conclusion: We concluded that with the appropriate clinical and radiologic setting, the diagnosis of CB can be achieved on cytology if characteristic chondroblasts are present. The presence of chondromyxoid matrix is a helpful clue but is not necessary for the diagnosis. As in surgical pathology, cytologic evaluation of bone tumors should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical and radiologic findings.

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