Background: Up until recently, cervical cytology was the mainstay for cervical cancer screening. However, the established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has led to changes in preventive strategies, with cytology being replaced by the use of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing and primary prevention being achieved by HPV vaccination. In this context, the role of cervical cytology is shifting to secondary triage of HPV-positive women. As vaccination is leading to decreased HPV infections and significant cervical abnormalities (CIN2+), data on the impact of HPV vaccination on cervical cytology metrics, including positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), are starting to emerge. Summary: This is a review of updates in cervical cancer screening, including the use of primary HPV testing and the impact of HPV vaccination on cytology as part of cervical cancer screening. Key Messages: Cervical cancer screening and prevention are undergoing significant changes as there is widespread implementation of HPV vaccination and hrHPV testing is becoming the entry point for secondary prevention. Optimal screening approaches and intervals in this setting are currently being analyzed including the use of cytology and other ancillary techniques for triage of positive cases, as well as the effect of vaccination on the PPV and NPV of cytology in the detection of CIN2+.

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