Introduction: We previously reported that preoperative human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 positivity and postoperative high-risk (HR)-HPV test positivity are associated with abnormal postoperative cytology. In this study, we further examined whether preoperative and postoperative HR-HPV genotyping could predict cytological abnormalities and the risk of additional surgery. Methods: Patients who underwent cervical conization at our hospital between July 2009 and June 2018 were enrolled. HPV genotyping was performed preoperatively for all patients with HPV-positive. The association among preoperative and postoperative HR-HPV genotyping results, the cumulative risk of cytological abnormalities, and additional surgery were evaluated. The endpoint approach was used to investigate the cumulative incidence of additional surgery owing to cytological abnormalities, such as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion positivity and recurrence 2 years after cervical conization. Results: Positive and negative histological margins were observed in 21 and 287 of 308 cases, respectively. The cumulative incidence of abnormal cytology and additional surgery was significantly higher in margin-positive cases than that in margin-negative cases. Examination established according to the margin status demonstrated that the postoperative HR-HPV-positive group had a significantly worse prognosis than the HR-HPV-negative group. Additionally, 32 cases, wherein the same genotype detected before and after surgery, demonstrated significantly unfavorable outcomes. Fifteen patients with persistent HPV 16/18 had the worst prognosis than the other types. Conclusion: Preoperative and postoperative HR-HPV genotype tests were used to predict the cumulative incidence of abnormal cytology and additional surgery. Particularly, patients with suspected persistent HPV type 16/18 infection are at a high recurrence risk.