Introduction: Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that has contributed to significant changes in feature extraction and image classification and is being actively researched and developed in the field of cytopathology. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) enables standardized cytological preparation and is also applied to artificial intelligence (AI) research, but cytological features differ depending on the LBC preservative solution types. In this study, the relationship between cell detection by AI and the type of preservative solution used was examined. Methods: The specimens were prepared from five preservative solutions of LBC and stained using the Papanicolaou method. The YOLOv5 deep convolutional neural network algorithm was used to create a deep learning model for each specimen, and a BRCPT model from five specimens was also created. Each model was compared to the specimen types used for detection. Results: Among the six models, a difference in the detection rate of approximately 25% was observed depending on the detected specimen, and within specimens, a difference in the detection rate of approximately 20% was observed depending on the model. The BRCPT model had little variation in the detection rate depending on the type of the detected specimen. Conclusions: The same cells were treated with different preservative solutions, the cytologic features were different, and AI clarified the difference in cytologic features depending on the type of solution. The type of preservative solution used for training and detection had an extreme influence on cell detection using AI. Although the accuracy of the deep learning model is important, it is necessary to understand that cell morphology differs depending on the type of preservative solution, which is a factor affecting the detection rate of AI.

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