Introduction: The morphology of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears widely varied, including syncytial aggregates, sheets, and scattered single cells, and no particular cellular pattern is consistently observed. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether the menstrual cycle affects the cellular pattern of HSILs, an effort to avoid false negatives due to the oversight of scattered small single HSIL cells in the cytological triage of human papillomavirus-positive women. Methods: A total of 147 HSIL samples of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 were obtained, and then, the relationship between cellular patterns, such as single-cell-like and syncytial aggregates, and menstrual cycles classified into six phases was analyzed. If a syncytial aggregate was present, the number of cells constituting the aggregate was visually counted under the microscope. Results: HSILs in scattered single cells and small sheets of <6 on LBC samples accounted for 43% (23/54) during the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. A moderately strong statistically significant association was observed between cellular patterns and menstrual cycles (χ2 [3] = 9.423, p < 0.05) (Cramer’s V = 0.253). The value of adjusted residuals showed a statistically significant increased proportion of single-cell-like patterns during the late proliferative phase (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that HSIL cells in Pap smears in the late proliferation phase have a high frequency of single-cell-like patterns. In human papillomavirus-positive Pap smears with a clean background and predominantly superficial cells, careful microscopic observation by targeting single HSIL cells can potentially reduce false negatives.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.