Introduction: Molecular targeted therapies have been established for various diseases, including cancers, and there is an increasing need for molecular testing on cytology specimens. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal preservation methods of liquid-based cytology (LBC) materials for molecular testing. Methods: Cytological samples from 35 surgical resected non-small cell lung carcinoma specimens were obtained between June 2016 and June 2021. The samples were fixed in CytoRich™ red Preservative and stored at 4°C. One week later, three tubes were prepared from each specimen sample and divided into the following groups: the SurePath™ group (continued storage at 4°C), Frozen (Fr) group (stored at −80°C after centrifugation), and LBC-Cell Block (LBC-CB) group (generation of paraffin-embedded CB and storage at 4°C). Samples from 5 patients were used for the time course analysis, and we performed evaluations on these samples at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. The concentrations and purities of extracted DNA and RNA were measured. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and RNA concentrations were also measured by a fluorometer. The DNA and RNA integrities were quantified by the DNA and RNA integrity number. Results: Evaluation of samples was performed at baseline and the six timepoints. In the LBC-CB group, DNA and dsDNA concentrations were higher rather than those in the other groups. The RNA concentration of the LBC-CB group was relatively high compared with those of the other groups at the 36-month timepoint. The Fr group maintained higher DNA quality compared with the other groups over 3 years. The LBC-CB group maintained a higher RNA quality than the other groups until 24 months. Conclusion: LBC-CB preparation is an effective method to maintain DNA/RNA quality and quantity in long-duration preservation for eventual molecular testing. Therefore, LBC-CB may have applications on preanalytical stage for molecular genomic testing such as next-generation sequencing.

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