Background: Small round blue cell tumors or more commonly called small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are undifferentiated neoplasms, sharing an overlapping morphological pattern of small round blue cells. Diagnosing these tumors represents a complex challenge for cytopathologists and for general surgical pathologist alike. This stems from the fact that these tumors share not only similar morphological features, but also some immunophenotypic characteristics, thus requiring a broad panel of antibodies, which might not be included in the most basic immunohistochemistry panels, used in the routine work of most pathology laboratories. Furthermore, one should note that the diagnosis, prognosis, and/or therapeutic decision are often dependent on the knowledge of the existence of specific molecular alterations, which requires access to sophisticated molecular ancillary techniques. Cytological diagnosis of SRCT should be systematized. A thorough understanding of the morphological pattern of these tumors, the small details they entail, the background and cellular patterns, and the nuclear and cytoplasmic peculiarities, may hint to the most probable diagnosis. Minor clues, such as the presence of a fibrillar background, the presence of rosettes or a specific “salt and pepper” chromatin, are important clues toward a probable diagnosis of a neuroblastoma, or the presence of a tigroid background is a characteristic of rhabdomyosarcoma and the Ewing family tumors. However, in poorly differentiated tumors, morphology alone will not suffice, making it essential for the access to complementary diagnostic techniques in order to reach the final diagnosis. Summary and Key Messages: The cytological diagnosis and treatment of SRCTs require an experienced, well-articulated, proficient teamwork, and sophisticated complementary diagnostic techniques, only available in centers of reference.

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