“Small-cell malignancies of thyroid” is an unsolved dilemma. This term represents an umbrella terminology in thyroid, encompassing for a small group of tumors in which some of them are well-recognized tumors like medullary thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and primary thyroid lymphomas and teratoma, whereas the remaining are less known as primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thyroid, primary extraskeletal Ewing family tumors, and adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma. When the issue comes to evaluate a cytological sample predominantly composed of small-cell morphology, metastatic small-cell carcinomas to thyroid also should be excluded. In this review, our group focused on the main cytomorphological and clinical clues of each entity that help to set up a correct differential diagnosis. The literature discussions were also included for the entities that are not yet recognized by the mother publication WHO. A key point of the issue’s simple algorithm based on FNAC with small-cell morphology of thyroid was suggested by the authors.

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