Introduction: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-established method for sampling breast lesions with high accuracy and positive predictive value. Despite its decline in recent years relative to the use of core needle biopsies, there are several advantages to FNA which include cost-effectiveness, low complication rate, and the ability to perform rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE). The aim of this study was to evaluate breast FNAs with ROSE to identify diagnostic challenges during ROSE. Materials and Methods: We identified all breast FNAs with ROSE performed at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2014 to December 2019. From the electronic medical record, clinical, radiological, and follow-up pathology results were recorded. Comparison between the rapid and final cytological diagnosis was made. All discrepancies were documented with major discrepancy defined as a malignant rapid interpretation not confirmed on final diagnosis or a negative rapid interpretation upgraded to suspicious or positive on final diagnosis. Results: The study cohort consisted of 483 breast FNAs with ROSE. The rapid and final cytological interpretations showed good correlation, with only 6 (1.2%) major discrepancies. Problematic areas included low-grade, lobular, and fibroepithelial lesions with low cellularity being a contributory factor to misclassification. Conclusions: FNA remains a highly accurate method for the evaluation of breast lesions with ROSE.

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