Myxoid leiomyosarcoma (MLS) is a rare variant of leiomyosarcoma, with most cases occurring in the uterus. A case of MLS arising in the periosteal region of the tibia, mimicking extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), is described. The evaluation included histological and cytological comparison with EMC. The patient was a 77-year-old man with a palpable mass at the anterior aspect of the right lower leg. After diagnosis by cytopathology and biopsy examination, a wide resection was performed. The resulting cytological smears were composed primarily of spindle-shaped tumor cells in a myxoid and hemorrhagic background. Histologically, the tumor showed abundant myxoid matrix and tumor cells proliferating in a cord-like to reticular pattern, exhibiting a lace-like arrangement that mimicked EMC. Although immunohistochemical findings suggested leiomyosarcoma, a diagnosis of EMC eventually was excluded by the lack of a split signal when assessed for a rearrangement of NR4A3 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Despite histological similarity to EMC, characteristic cytological findings of EMC such as epithelioid structures with a cord-like pattern and chondroblast-like lacunar structures were not observed in the smears of this patient’s MLS. We propose that cytopathological examination of bone and soft tissue lesions is useful as a diagnostic tool in similar cases. A total diagnostic workup, including clinical, radiographic, cytopathological, histopathological, and molecular findings, is needed to ensure an accurate final diagnosis and to reduce diagnostic error.

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