Objectives: This work is aimed to summarize the first year of the high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening test and compare it to the cytology screening test, regarding positivity rates and premalignant lesions diagnosed in the Israeli population. A specific consideration is for the age group 25–30 that is not considered mandatory for the HPV primary screening testing. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in women who were screened for prevention of cervical cancer in Maccabi HealthCare HMO from March 2017 to March 2019. Screening methods included hrHPV typing for types 16, 18, and the other 12 hrHPV types and the PAP LBC test. Results: A total of 115,807 cervical samples were tested for HPV presence and 91% (105,225) were found negative for hrHPV. The other 9% (10,582) were positive for one or more of the 14 hrHPV types tested, and 37% (3,916) of them showed abnormal PAP LBC results. In the age group of 25–30, 3,104 (17.5%) women were found positive for hr-HPV (825 had hrHPV types 16 and/or 18), of which 42% (1,293) of them showed abnormal PAP LBC results. During the hrHPV versus PAP LBC screening era, 258 more women were diagnosed with precancerous cervical lesions (CIN2/3), 70% increased detection versus cytology screening. Conclusions: The hrHPV screening test is currently the best method for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions and cervical cancer, and it is better started at age 25.

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