Introduction: Paraffin injections for breast augmentation once a popular form of mammoplasty are now considered obsolete. It had been abandoned by clinicians because of its associated serious complications. The practice is however still available and is being practiced by nonmedically qualified people. Paraffin injection results in the formation of multiple foreign-body granulomas known as breast paraffinoma. The clinical features of breast paraffinoma can mimic and be mistaken for breast carcinoma or inflammatory breast carcinoma. The use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the evaluation of patients with breast paraffinoma has not been fully evaluated. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on 30 patients who presented with breast paraffinoma between June 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, who also had FNAC as part of their breast lump evaluation. Results: FNAC of 73.3% patients showed multinucleated giant cells and macrophages or histiocytes containing engulfed clear, empty intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes. In 13.3% of the patients, macrophages or histiocytes with engulfed clear intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes were seen. In 6.7% of patients, multinucleated giant cells containing engulfed vacuoles of varying sizes were seen, and in 6.7% of patients, hypocellular smears with large amount of clear spaces were seen. Oily droplets were seen in the background of all the smears, and there were no malignant cells seen. These features were compatible with breast paraffinoma. Conclusion: Most patients with breast paraffinoma can be managed conservatively and they do not require further treatment; FNAC with its characteristic features can provide the reliable diagnosis of breast paraffinoma and therefore sparing these patients from more invasive diagnostic procedures.

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