Introduction: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) is found to be responsible for 4.5% of cancer in general, primarily cervical cancer. We aim here to highlight the prevalence and genotypes of HR HPV and correlate its association with Pap tests’ results, which are still not well known in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Over 7 years (2013–2019), the results of 164 Saudi women coinvestigated for HR HPV along with Pap tests were collected from the archive of King Fahd University Hospital. Only women who had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on the Pap test and those at elevated risk of infection were cotested for HR HPV; otherwise, the Pap test was the only screening modality for cervical cancer. Data were organized and statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS v26. Results: Out of 164 Saudi women, 14.5% (n = 24/164) showed positive results for HR HPV (8 patients had HPV16 and 2 had both HPV16 and HPV18/45, while the remaining 14 had other HR HPV); among them, 41.5% (n = 10/24) had an abnormal Pap test (5 ASCUS and 5 LSIL), while 58.5% (n = 14/24) had a negative Pap test. On the other hand, 21% (n = 35/164) of patients, in the study, had an abnormal Pap test (24 ASCUS, 8 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL], and 3 atypical glandular cell [AGC]). In 80% (n = 19/24) of ASCUS cases, HR HPV was not detected; however, 20% (n = 5/24) were positive for other HR HPV. Concerning LSIL cases, 62.5% (n = 5/8) were positive for HR HPV (1 case showed HPV16 and HPV18/45, 2 cases showed HPV16, and 2 cases showed other HR HPV), while in the remaining 37.5% (n = 3/8) LSIL cases, HR HPV was negative; similarly, all AGC cases were negative for HR HPV. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between HPV status and Pap test findings (p value <0.001). Discussion/Conclusion: HR HPV frequency and genotype distribution, in this study, might reflect a different regional infection pattern. The high association of HR HPV with negative cytology emphasizes the need to add the HR HPV test to screening modalities of cervix cancer.

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