Introduction: The nucleated-cell differential count on the bone marrow aspirate smears is required for the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancy. Manual bone marrow differential count is time consuming and lacks consistency. In this study, a novel artificial intelligence (AI)-based system was developed to perform cell automatic classification of bone marrow cells and determine its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Bone marrow aspirate smears were collected from the Xinqiao Hospital of Army Medical University. First, an automated analysis system (Morphogo) scanned and generated whole digital images of bone marrow smears. Then, the nucleated marrow cells in the selected areas of the smears at a magnification of ×1,000 were analyzed by the software utilizing an AI-based platform. The cell classification results were further reviewed and confirmed independently by 2 experienced pathologists. The automatic cell classification performance of the system was evaluated using 3 categories: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Correlation coefficients and linear regression equations between automatic cell classification by the AI-based system and concurrent manual differential count were calculated. Results: In 230 cases, the classification accuracy was above 85.7% for hematopoietic lineage cells. Averages of sensitivity and specificity of the system were found to be 69.4 and 97.2%, respectively. The differential cell percentage of the automated count based on 200–500 cell counts was correlated with differential cell percentage provided by the pathologists for granulocytes, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes (r ≥ 0.762, p < 0.001). Discussion/Conclusion: This pilot study confirmed that the Morphogo system is a reliable tool for automatic bone marrow cell differential count analysis and has potential for clinical applications. Current ongoing large-scale multicenter validation studies will provide more information to further confirm the clinical utility of the system.

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