Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the positive rate and overall concordance rate of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test and cytology using self-sampled and physician-sampled cervicovaginal tests and to compare both specimens. Methods: In collaboration with 3 private hospitals in Sapporo city, 300 women visiting these organizations were enrolled in the study by previously signing an informed consent. From these women, both types of samples (self-obtained and physician-sampled) were obtained at the same time. HrHPV test and cytology were performed on both specimens, and the positive rate and overall concordance rate were calculated to compare both specimens. Results: HrHPV-positive women were 13.7% in physician-sampled specimens and 14.7% in self-sampled specimens, with an overall concordance rate of 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94–98%). On the other hand, the positive rate of the cases higher than or equal to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on cytology was different between both groups, that is, 12.3% in physician-obtained and 5.3% in self-sampled specimens; the overall concordance rate was 90.7% (95% CI: 87–94%), indicating an apparent decrease in the positive rate of cytology in self-obtained specimens. Conclusion: HrHPV test and cytology were performed on parallel samples obtained by the patients with a self-sampling tool and by the physician. The positive rate of cytology was considerably different between these specimens, while almost equivalent results were obtained for hrHPV test in both specimens. It was concluded that hrHPV test may be safely and accurately performed on self-obtained cervicovaginal samples by the help of a self-sampling device in the Japanese population as a first screening tool, with equivalent results to physician-obtained specimens.

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