Fine needle aspiration samples and small biopsies provide a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for mass lesions. When an infectious process is suspected based on initial evaluation, ancillary techniques can assist in making a specific diagnosis. Here we review the cytopathology that should prompt additional testing and review the availability and interpretation of special stains, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In addition, this review addresses when special cultures may be necessary and the use of newer molecular techniques for pathogen identification.
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© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel
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