Liquid biopsy represents the analysis of tumor-derived material in the blood and other body fluids of cancer patients. This portrays a minimally invasive detection tool for molecular biomarkers. Liquid biopsy has emerged as a complementary or alternative method to surgical biopsy. This non-invasive detection tool overcomes the recurrent problems in the clinical assessment of tumors that stem from the lack of accessibility to the tumor tissue and its clonal heterogeneity. Moreover, body fluid-derived components have shown to reflect the genetic profile of both primary and metastatic lesions and provide a real-time monitoring of tumor dynamics, representing a great promise for personalized medicine. This review will highlight the latest breakthroughs and the current applications of several tumor-derived biomarkers that can be found in body fluids. The authors will focus on tumor-derived exosomes, tumor-educated platelets, and circulating tumor miRNAs and mRNAs, and how these can be used for tumor detection.

1.
Perakis
S
,
Speicher
MR
.
Emerging concepts in liquid biopsies
.
BMC Med
.
2017
Apr
;
15
(
1
):
75
.
[PubMed]
1741-7015
2.
Diaz
LA
 Jr
,
Bardelli
A
.
Liquid biopsies: genotyping circulating tumor DNA
.
J Clin Oncol
.
2014
Feb
;
32
(
6
):
579
86
.
[PubMed]
0732-183X
3.
Crowley
E
,
Di Nicolantonio
F
,
Loupakis
F
,
Bardelli
A
.
Liquid biopsy: monitoring cancer-genetics in the blood
.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
.
2013
Aug
;
10
(
8
):
472
84
.
[PubMed]
1759-4774
4.
Alix-Panabières
C
,
Pantel
K
.
Circulating tumor cells: liquid biopsy of cancer
.
Clin Chem
.
2013
Jan
;
59
(
1
):
110
8
.
[PubMed]
0009-9147
5.
Alix-Panabières
C
,
Pantel
K
.
Challenges in circulating tumour cell research
.
Nat Rev Cancer
.
2014
Sep
;
14
(
9
):
623
31
.
[PubMed]
1474-175X
6.
Schwarzenbach
H
,
Pantel
K
.
Circulating DNA as biomarker in breast cancer
.
Breast Cancer Res
.
2015
Oct
;
17
(
1
):
136
.
[PubMed]
1465-5411
7.
Melo
SA
,
Luecke
LB
,
Kahlert
C
,
Fernandez
AF
,
Gammon
ST
,
Kaye
J
, et al
Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer
.
Nature
.
2015
Jul
;
523
(
7559
):
177
82
.
[PubMed]
0028-0836
8.
Skog
J
,
Würdinger
T
,
van Rijn
S
,
Meijer
DH
,
Gainche
L
,
Sena-Esteves
M
, et al
Glioblastoma microvesicles transport RNA and proteins that promote tumour growth and provide diagnostic biomarkers
.
Nat Cell Biol
.
2008
Dec
;
10
(
12
):
1470
6
.
[PubMed]
1465-7392
9.
Best
MG
,
Sol
N
,
Kooi
I
,
Tannous
J
,
Westerman
BA
,
Rustenburg
F
, et al
RNA-Seq of Tumor-Educated Platelets Enables Blood-Based Pan-Cancer, Multiclass, and Molecular Pathway Cancer Diagnostics
.
Cancer Cell
.
2015
Nov
;
28
(
5
):
666
76
.
[PubMed]
1535-6108
10.
Nilsson
RJ
,
Karachaliou
N
,
Berenguer
J
,
Gimenez-Capitan
A
,
Schellen
P
,
Teixido
C
, et al
Rearranged EML4-ALK fusion transcripts sequester in circulating blood platelets and enable blood-based crizotinib response monitoring in non-small-cell lung cancer
.
Oncotarget
.
2016
Jan
;
7
(
1
):
1066
75
.
[PubMed]
1949-2553
11.
Nilsson
RJ
,
Balaj
L
,
Hulleman
E
,
van Rijn
S
,
Pegtel
DM
,
Walraven
M
, et al
Blood platelets contain tumor-derived RNA biomarkers
.
Blood
.
2011
Sep
;
118
(
13
):
3680
3
.
[PubMed]
0006-4971
12.
García
V
,
García
JM
,
Peña
C
,
Silva
J
,
Domínguez
G
,
Lorenzo
Y
, et al
Free circulating mRNA in plasma from breast cancer patients and clinical outcome
.
Cancer Lett
.
2008
May
;
263
(
2
):
312
20
.
[PubMed]
0304-3835
13.
March-Villalba
JA
,
Martínez-Jabaloyas
JM
,
Herrero
MJ
,
Santamaria
J
,
Aliño
SF
,
Dasí
F
.
Cell-free circulating plasma hTERT mRNA is a useful marker for prostate cancer diagnosis and is associated with poor prognosis tumor characteristics
.
PLoS One
.
2012
;
7
(
8
):
e43470
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
14.
Joosse
SA
,
Pantel
K
.
Tumor-Educated Platelets as Liquid Biopsy in Cancer Patients
.
Cancer Cell
.
2015
Nov
;
28
(
5
):
552
4
.
[PubMed]
1535-6108
15.
Rajagopal
C
,
Harikumar
KB
.
The Origin and Functions of Exosomes in Cancer
.
Front Oncol
.
2018
Mar
;
8
:
66
.
[PubMed]
2234-943X
16.
EL Andaloussi
S
,
Mäger
I
,
Breakefield
XO
,
Wood
MJ
.
Extracellular vesicles: biology and emerging therapeutic opportunities
.
Nat Rev Drug Discov
.
2013
May
;
12
(
5
):
347
57
.
[PubMed]
1474-1776
17.
Thakur
BK
,
Zhang
H
,
Becker
A
,
Matei
I
,
Huang
Y
,
Costa-Silva
B
, et al
Double-stranded DNA in exosomes: a novel biomarker in cancer detection
.
Cell Res
.
2014
Jun
;
24
(
6
):
766
9
.
[PubMed]
1001-0602
18.
Yang
S
,
Che
SP
,
Kurywchak
P
,
Tavormina
JL
,
Gansmo
LB
,
Correa de Sampaio
P
, et al
Detection of mutant KRAS and TP53 DNA in circulating exosomes from healthy individuals and patients with pancreatic cancer
.
Cancer Biol Ther
.
2017
Mar
;
18
(
3
):
158
65
.
[PubMed]
1538-4047
19.
Zhang
X
,
Yuan
X
,
Shi
H
,
Wu
L
,
Qian
H
,
Xu
W
.
Exosomes in cancer: small particle, big player
.
J Hematol Oncol
.
2015
Jul
;
8
(
1
):
83
.
[PubMed]
1756-8722
20.
Taylor
DD
,
Gercel-Taylor
C
.
MicroRNA signatures of tumor-derived exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer
.
Gynecol Oncol
.
2008
Jul
;
110
(
1
):
13
21
.
[PubMed]
0090-8258
21.
Pelloski
CE
,
Ballman
KV
,
Furth
AF
,
Zhang
L
,
Lin
E
,
Sulman
EP
, et al
Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III status defines clinically distinct subtypes of glioblastoma
.
J Clin Oncol
.
2007
Jun
;
25
(
16
):
2288
94
.
[PubMed]
0732-183X
22.
An
Z
,
Aksoy
O
,
Zheng
T
,
Fan
QW
,
Weiss
WA
.
Epidermal growth factor receptor and EGFRvIII in glioblastoma: signaling pathways and targeted therapies
.
Oncogene
.
2018
Mar
;
37
(
12
):
1561
75
.
[PubMed]
0950-9232
23.
Papagiannakopoulos
T
,
Shapiro
A
,
Kosik
KS
.
MicroRNA-21 targets a network of key tumor-suppressive pathways in glioblastoma cells
.
Cancer Res
.
2008
Oct
;
68
(
19
):
8164
72
.
[PubMed]
0008-5472
24.
Zhang
W
,
Xia
W
,
Lv
Z
,
Ni
C
,
Xin
Y
,
Yang
L
.
Liquid Biopsy for Cancer: Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Free DNA or Exosomes?
Cell Physiol Biochem
.
2017
;
41
(
2
):
755
68
.
[PubMed]
1015-8987
25.
Halvaei
S
,
Daryani
S
,
Eslami-S
Z
,
Samadi
T
,
Jafarbeik-Iravani
N
,
Bakhshayesh
TO
, et al
Exosomes in Cancer Liquid Biopsy: A Focus on Breast Cancer
.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
.
2018
Mar
;
10
:
131
41
.
[PubMed]
2162-2531
26.
Domenyuk
V
,
Zhong
Z
,
Stark
A
,
Xiao
N
,
O’Neill
HA
,
Wei
X
, et al
Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach
.
Sci Rep
.
2017
Feb
;
7
(
1
):
42741
.
[PubMed]
2045-2322
27.
Gercel-Taylor
C
,
Atay
S
,
Tullis
RH
,
Kesimer
M
,
Taylor
DD
.
Nanoparticle analysis of circulating cell-derived vesicles in ovarian cancer patients
.
Anal Biochem
.
2012
Sep
;
428
(
1
):
44
53
.
[PubMed]
0003-2697
28.
Qin
W
,
Tsukasaki
Y
,
Dasgupta
S
,
Mukhopadhyay
N
,
Ikebe
M
,
Sauter
ER
.
Exosomes in Human Breast Milk Promote EMT
.
Clin Cancer Res
.
2016
Sep
;
22
(
17
):
4517
24
.
[PubMed]
1078-0432
29.
Silva
J
,
Garcia
V
,
Rodriguez
M
,
Compte
M
,
Cisneros
E
,
Veguillas
P
, et al
Analysis of exosome release and its prognostic value in human colorectal cancer
.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
.
2012
Apr
;
51
(
4
):
409
18
.
[PubMed]
1045-2257
30.
Webber
J
,
Steadman
R
,
Mason
MD
,
Tabi
Z
,
Clayton
A
.
Cancer exosomes trigger fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation
.
Cancer Res
.
2010
Dec
;
70
(
23
):
9621
30
.
[PubMed]
0008-5472
31.
Jung
T
,
Castellana
D
,
Klingbeil
P
,
Cuesta Hernández
I
,
Vitacolonna
M
,
Orlicky
DJ
, et al
CD44v6 dependence of premetastatic niche preparation by exosomes
.
Neoplasia
.
2009
Oct
;
11
(
10
):
1093
105
.
[PubMed]
1522-8002
32.
Peinado
H
,
Alečković
M
,
Lavotshkin
S
,
Matei
I
,
Costa-Silva
B
,
Moreno-Bueno
G
, et al
Melanoma exosomes educate bone marrow progenitor cells toward a pro-metastatic phenotype through MET
.
Nat Med
.
2012
Jun
;
18
(
6
):
883
91
.
[PubMed]
1078-8956
33.
Livshits
MA
,
Khomyakova
E
,
Evtushenko
EG
,
Lazarev
VN
,
Kulemin
NA
,
Semina
SE
, et al
Isolation of exosomes by differential centrifugation: theoretical analysis of a commonly used protocol
.
Sci Rep
.
2015
Nov
;
5
(
1
):
17319
.
[PubMed]
2045-2322
34.
Théry
C
,
Zitvogel
L
,
Amigorena
S
.
Exosomes: composition, biogenesis and function
.
Nat Rev Immunol
.
2002
Aug
;
2
(
8
):
569
79
.
[PubMed]
1474-1733
35.
Xu
R
,
Rai
A
,
Chen
M
,
Suwakulsiri
W
,
Greening
DW
,
Simpson
RJ
.
Extracellular vesicles in cancer - implications for future improvements in cancer care
.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
.
2018
Oct
;
15
(
10
):
617
38
.
[PubMed]
1759-4774
36.
Melo
SA
,
Sugimoto
H
,
O’Connell
JT
,
Kato
N
,
Villanueva
A
,
Vidal
A
, et al
Cancer exosomes perform cell-independent microRNA biogenesis and promote tumorigenesis
.
Cancer Cell
.
2014
Nov
;
26
(
5
):
707
21
.
[PubMed]
1535-6108
37.
van Niel
G
,
D’Angelo
G
,
Raposo
G
.
Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles
.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
.
2018
Apr
;
19
(
4
):
213
28
.
[PubMed]
1471-0072
38.
Minciacchi
VR
,
Freeman
MR
,
Di Vizio
D
.
Extracellular vesicles in cancer: exosomes, microvesicles and the emerging role of large oncosomes
.
Semin Cell Dev Biol
.
2015
Apr
;
40
:
41
51
.
[PubMed]
1084-9521
39.
Morvan
J
,
Rinaldi
B
,
Friant
S
.
Pkh1/2-dependent phosphorylation of Vps27 regulates ESCRT-I recruitment to endosomes
.
Mol Biol Cell
.
2012
Oct
;
23
(
20
):
4054
64
.
[PubMed]
1059-1524
40.
Falguières
T
,
Luyet
PP
,
Bissig
C
,
Scott
CC
,
Velluz
MC
,
Gruenberg
J
.
In vitro budding of intralumenal vesicles into late endosomes is regulated by Alix and Tsg101
.
Mol Biol Cell
.
2008
Nov
;
19
(
11
):
4942
55
.
[PubMed]
1059-1524
41.
Adell
MA
,
Vogel
GF
,
Pakdel
M
,
Müller
M
,
Lindner
H
,
Hess
MW
, et al
Coordinated binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III drives membrane neck constriction during MVB vesicle formation
.
J Cell Biol
.
2014
Apr
;
205
(
1
):
33
49
.
[PubMed]
0021-9525
42.
Cocucci
E
,
Racchetti
G
,
Meldolesi
J
.
Shedding microvesicles: artefacts no more
.
Trends Cell Biol
.
2009
Feb
;
19
(
2
):
43
51
.
[PubMed]
0962-8924
43.
Théry
C
,
Amigorena
S
,
Raposo
G
,
Clayton
A
.
Isolation and characterization of exosomes from cell culture supernatants and biological fluids.
Curr Protoc Cell Biol
2006
;Chapter 3:Unit 3.22.
44.
Tauro
BJ
,
Greening
DW
,
Mathias
RA
,
Ji
H
,
Mathivanan
S
,
Scott
AM
, et al
Comparison of ultracentrifugation, density gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture methods for isolating human colon cancer cell line LIM1863-derived exosomes
.
Methods
.
2012
Feb
;
56
(
2
):
293
304
.
[PubMed]
1046-2023
45.
Cvjetkovic
A
,
Lötvall
J
,
Lässer
C
.
The influence of rotor type and centrifugation time on the yield and purity of extracellular vesicles
.
J Extracell Vesicles
.
2014
Mar
;
3
(
1
):
3
.
[PubMed]
2001-3078
46.
Momen-Heravi
F
,
Balaj
L
,
Alian
S
,
Trachtenberg
AJ
,
Hochberg
FH
,
Skog
J
, et al
Impact of biofluid viscosity on size and sedimentation efficiency of the isolated microvesicles
.
Front Physiol
.
2012
May
;
3
:
162
.
[PubMed]
1664-042X
47.
Chiou
N-T
,
Ansel
KM
:
Improved exosome isolation by sucrose gradient fractionation of ultracentrifuged crude exosome pellets.
2016
48.
Witwer
KW
,
Buzás
EI
,
Bemis
LT
,
Bora
A
,
Lässer
C
,
Lötvall
J
, et al
Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research
.
J Extracell Vesicles
.
2013
May
;
2
(
1
):
2
.
[PubMed]
2001-3078
49.
Momen-Heravi
F
,
Balaj
L
,
Alian
S
,
Mantel
PY
,
Halleck
AE
,
Trachtenberg
AJ
, et al
Current methods for the isolation of extracellular vesicles
.
Biol Chem
.
2013
Oct
;
394
(
10
):
1253
62
.
[PubMed]
1431-6730
50.
Logozzi
M
,
De Milito
A
,
Lugini
L
,
Borghi
M
,
Calabrò
L
,
Spada
M
, et al
High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients
.
PLoS One
.
2009
;
4
(
4
):
e5219
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
51.
Goto
T
,
Fujiya
M
,
Konishi
H
,
Sasajima
J
,
Fujibayashi
S
,
Hayashi
A
, et al
An elevated expression of serum exosomal microRNA-191, - 21, -451a of pancreatic neoplasm is considered to be efficient diagnostic marker
.
BMC Cancer
.
2018
Jan
;
18
(
1
):
116
.
[PubMed]
1471-2407
52.
Rekker
K
,
Saare
M
,
Roost
AM
,
Kubo
AL
,
Zarovni
N
,
Chiesi
A
, et al
Comparison of serum exosome isolation methods for microRNA profiling
.
Clin Biochem
.
2014
Jan
;
47
(
1-2
):
135
8
.
[PubMed]
0009-9120
53.
Alvarez
ML
,
Khosroheidari
M
,
Kanchi Ravi
R
,
DiStefano
JK
.
Comparison of protein, microRNA, and mRNA yields using different methods of urinary exosome isolation for the discovery of kidney disease biomarkers
.
Kidney Int
.
2012
Nov
;
82
(
9
):
1024
32
.
[PubMed]
0085-2538
54.
Soung
YH
,
Ford
S
,
Zhang
V
,
Chung
J
.
Exosomes in Cancer Diagnostics
.
Cancers (Basel)
.
2017
Jan
;
9
(
1
):
9
.
[PubMed]
2072-6694
55.
George
JN
.
Platelets
.
Lancet
.
2000
Apr
;
355
(
9214
):
1531
9
.
[PubMed]
0140-6736
56.
Leslie
M
.
Cell biology. Beyond clotting: the powers of platelets
.
Science
.
2010
Apr
;
328
(
5978
):
562
4
.
[PubMed]
0036-8075
57.
Macaulay
IC
,
Carr
P
,
Gusnanto
A
,
Ouwehand
WH
,
Fitzgerald
D
,
Watkins
NA
.
Platelet genomics and proteomics in human health and disease
.
J Clin Invest
.
2005
Dec
;
115
(
12
):
3370
7
.
[PubMed]
0021-9738
58.
Denis
MM
,
Tolley
ND
,
Bunting
M
,
Schwertz
H
,
Jiang
H
,
Lindemann
S
, et al
Escaping the nuclear confines: signal-dependent pre-mRNA splicing in anucleate platelets
.
Cell
.
2005
Aug
;
122
(
3
):
379
91
.
[PubMed]
0092-8674
59.
Kieffer
N
,
Guichard
J
,
Farcet
JP
,
Vainchenker
W
,
Breton-Gorius
J
.
Biosynthesis of major platelet proteins in human blood platelets
.
Eur J Biochem
.
1987
Apr
;
164
(
1
):
189
95
.
[PubMed]
0014-2956
60.
Gnatenko
DV
,
Dunn
JJ
,
Schwedes
J
,
Bahou
WF
.
Transcript profiling of human platelets using microarray and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)
.
Methods Mol Biol
.
2009
;
496
:
245
72
.
[PubMed]
1064-3745
61.
McAllister
SS
,
Weinberg
RA
.
The tumour-induced systemic environment as a critical regulator of cancer progression and metastasis
.
Nat Cell Biol
.
2014
Aug
;
16
(
8
):
717
27
.
[PubMed]
1465-7392
62.
Kuznetsov
HS
,
Marsh
T
,
Markens
BA
,
Castaño
Z
,
Greene-Colozzi
A
,
Hay
SA
, et al
Identification of luminal breast cancers that establish a tumor-supportive macroenvironment defined by proangiogenic platelets and bone marrow-derived cells
.
Cancer Discov
.
2012
Dec
;
2
(
12
):
1150
65
.
[PubMed]
2159-8274
63.
Gnatenko
DV
,
Dunn
JJ
,
McCorkle
SR
,
Weissmann
D
,
Perrotta
PL
,
Bahou
WF
.
Transcript profiling of human platelets using microarray and serial analysis of gene expression
.
Blood
.
2003
Mar
;
101
(
6
):
2285
93
.
[PubMed]
0006-4971
64.
Matowicka-Karna
J
,
Kamocki
Z
,
Polińska
B
,
Osada
J
,
Kemona
H
.
Platelets and inflammatory markers in patients with gastric cancer
.
Clin Dev Immunol
.
2013
;
2013
:
401623
.
[PubMed]
1740-2522
65.
Cho
MS
,
Bottsford-Miller
J
,
Vasquez
HG
,
Stone
R
,
Zand
B
,
Kroll
MH
, et al
Platelets increase the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells
.
Blood
.
2012
Dec
;
120
(
24
):
4869
72
.
[PubMed]
0006-4971
66.
Bottsford-Miller
J
,
Choi
HJ
,
Dalton
HJ
,
Stone
RL
,
Cho
MS
,
Haemmerle
M
,
Nick
AM
,
Pradeep
S
,
Zand
B
,
Previs
RA
,
Pecot
CV
,
Crane
EK
,
Hu
W
,
Lutgendorf
SK
,
Afshar-Kharghan
V
,
Sood
AK
:
Differential platelet levels affect response to taxane-based therapy in ovarian cancer.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
2015
;21:602-610.
67.
Mantur
M
,
Kemona
H
,
Pietruczuk
M
,
Wasiluk
A
.
Does renal carcinoma affect the expression of P-selectin on platelets?
Neoplasma
.
2002
;
49
(
4
):
243
5
.
[PubMed]
0028-2685
68.
Mantur
M
,
Kemona
H
,
Kozłowski
R
,
Kemona-Chetnik
I
.
Effect of tumor stage and nephrectomy on CD62P expression and sP-selectin concentration in renal cancer
.
Neoplasma
.
2003
;
50
(
4
):
262
5
.
[PubMed]
0028-2685
69.
Dymicka-Piekarska
V
,
Matowicka-Karna
J
,
Osada
J
,
Kemona
H
,
Butkiewicz
AM
.
Changes in platelet CD 62P expression and soluble P-selectin concentration in surgically treated colorectal carcinoma
.
Adv Med Sci
.
2006
;
51
:
304
8
.
[PubMed]
1896-1126
70.
Zhang
M
,
Huang
XZ
,
Song
YX
,
Gao
P
,
Sun
JX
,
Wang
ZN
.
High Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Poor Prognosis and Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
.
BioMed Res Int
.
2017
;
2017
:
9503025
.
[PubMed]
2314-6133
71.
Tjon-Kon-Fat
LA
,
Lundholm
M
,
Schröder
M
,
Wurdinger
T
,
Thellenberg-Karlsson
C
,
Widmark
A
, et al
Platelets harbor prostate cancer biomarkers and the ability to predict therapeutic response to abiraterone in castration resistant patients
.
Prostate
.
2018
Jan
;
78
(
1
):
48
53
.
[PubMed]
0270-4137
72.
Rothwell
PM
,
Wilson
M
,
Price
JF
,
Belch
JF
,
Meade
TW
,
Mehta
Z
.
Effect of daily aspirin on risk of cancer metastasis: a study of incident cancers during randomised controlled trials
.
Lancet
.
2012
Apr
;
379
(
9826
):
1591
601
.
[PubMed]
0140-6736
73.
Patrignani
P
,
Patrono
C
.
Aspirin and Cancer
.
J Am Coll Cardiol
.
2016
Aug
;
68
(
9
):
967
76
.
[PubMed]
0735-1097
74.
Schubert
S
,
Weyrich
AS
,
Rowley
JW
.
A tour through the transcriptional landscape of platelets
.
Blood
.
2014
Jul
;
124
(
4
):
493
502
.
[PubMed]
0006-4971
75.
Calverley
DC
,
Phang
TL
,
Choudhury
QG
,
Gao
B
,
Oton
AB
,
Weyant
MJ
, et al
Significant downregulation of platelet gene expression in metastatic lung cancer
.
Clin Transl Sci
.
2010
Oct
;
3
(
5
):
227
32
.
[PubMed]
1752-8054
76.
Zhu
J
,
Strickler
JH
.
Clinical applications of liquid biopsies in gastrointestinal oncology
.
J Gastrointest Oncol
.
2016
Oct
;
7
(
5
):
675
86
.
[PubMed]
2078-6891
77.
Feller
SM
,
Lewitzky
M
.
Hunting for the ultimate liquid cancer biopsy - let the TEP dance begin
.
Cell Commun Signal
.
2016
Sep
;
14
(
1
):
24
.
[PubMed]
1478-811X
78.
Best
MG
,
Sol
N
. In 't Veld S, Vancura A, Muller M, Niemeijer AN, Fejes AV, Tjon Kon Fat LA, Huis In 't Veld AE, Leurs C, Le Large TY, Meijer LL, Kooi IE, Rustenburg F, Schellen P, Verschueren H, Post E, Wedekind LE, Bracht J, Esenkbrink M, Wils L, Favaro F, Schoonhoven JD, Tannous J, Meijers-Heijboer H, Kazemier G, Giovannetti E, Reijneveld JC, Idema S, Killestein J, Heger M, de Jager SC, Urbanus RT, Hoefer IE, Pasterkamp G, Mannhalter C, Gomez-Arroyo J, Bogaard HJ, Noske DP, Vandertop WP, van den Broek D, Ylstra B, Nilsson RJA, Wesseling P, Karachaliou N, Rosell R, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Lewandrowski KB, Tannous BA, de Langen AJ, Smit EF, van den Heuvel MM, Wurdinger T: Swarm Intelligence-Enhanced Detection of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Tumor-Educated Platelets. Cancer cell
2017
;32:238-252 e239.
79.
Solomon
BJ
,
Mok
T
,
Kim
DW
,
Wu
YL
,
Nakagawa
K
,
Mekhail
T
, et al;
PROFILE 1014 Investigators
.
First-line crizotinib versus chemotherapy in ALK-positive lung cancer
.
N Engl J Med
.
2014
Dec
;
371
(
23
):
2167
77
.
[PubMed]
0028-4793
80.
Lomnytska
M
,
Pinto
R
,
Becker
S
,
Engström
U
,
Gustafsson
S
,
Björklund
C
, et al
Platelet protein biomarker panel for ovarian cancer diagnosis
.
Biomark Res
.
2018
Jan
;
6
(
1
):
2
.
[PubMed]
2050-7771
81.
Bartel
DP
.
MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function
.
Cell
.
2004
Jan
;
116
(
2
):
281
97
.
[PubMed]
0092-8674
82.
Peng
Y
,
Croce
CM
.
The role of MicroRNAs in human cancer
.
Signal Transduct Target Ther
.
2016
Jan
;
1
(
1
):
15004
.
[PubMed]
2095-9907
83.
Lawrie
CH
,
Gal
S
,
Dunlop
HM
,
Pushkaran
B
,
Liggins
AP
,
Pulford
K
, et al
Detection of elevated levels of tumour-associated microRNAs in serum of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
.
Br J Haematol
.
2008
May
;
141
(
5
):
672
5
.
[PubMed]
0007-1048
84.
Mitchell
PS
,
Parkin
RK
,
Kroh
EM
,
Fritz
BR
,
Wyman
SK
,
Pogosova-Agadjanyan
EL
, et al
Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
.
2008
Jul
;
105
(
30
):
10513
8
.
[PubMed]
0027-8424
85.
Schwarzenbach
H
.
Clinical Relevance of Circulating, Cell-Free and Exosomal microRNAs in Plasma and Serum of Breast Cancer Patients
.
Oncol Res Treat
.
2017
;
40
(
7-8
):
423
9
.
[PubMed]
2296-5270
86.
Tsai
MM
,
Wang
CS
,
Tsai
CY
,
Huang
CG
,
Lee
KF
,
Huang
HW
, et al
Circulating microRNA-196a/b are novel biomarkers associated with metastatic gastric cancer
.
Eur J Cancer
.
2016
Sep
;
64
:
137
48
.
[PubMed]
0959-8049
87.
Zhang
H
,
Mao
F
,
Shen
T
,
Luo
Q
,
Ding
Z
,
Qian
L
, et al
Plasma miR-145, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-223 as novel biomarkers for screening early-stage non-small cell lung cancer
.
Oncol Lett
.
2017
Feb
;
13
(
2
):
669
76
.
[PubMed]
1792-1074
88.
Chen
W
,
Cai
F
,
Zhang
B
,
Barekati
Z
,
Zhong
XY
.
The level of circulating miRNA-10b and miRNA-373 in detecting lymph node metastasis of breast cancer: potential biomarkers
.
Tumour Biol
.
2013
Feb
;
34
(
1
):
455
62
.
[PubMed]
1010-4283
89.
Kodahl
AR
,
Lyng
MB
,
Binder
H
,
Cold
S
,
Gravgaard
K
,
Knoop
AS
, et al
Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer: a case control study
.
Mol Oncol
.
2014
Jul
;
8
(
5
):
874
83
.
[PubMed]
1574-7891
90.
Toiyama
Y
,
Takahashi
M
,
Hur
K
,
Nagasaka
T
,
Tanaka
K
,
Inoue
Y
, et al
Serum miR-21 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer
.
J Natl Cancer Inst
.
2013
Jun
;
105
(
12
):
849
59
.
[PubMed]
0027-8874
91.
Li
J
,
Li
M
,
Gao
F
,
Ge
X
.
Serum microRNA-15a level acts as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
.
Cancer Biomark
.
2017
;
18
(
1
):
11
7
.
[PubMed]
1574-0153
92.
Izzotti
A
,
Carozzo
S
,
Pulliero
A
,
Zhabayeva
D
,
Ravetti
JL
,
Bersimbaev
R
.
Extracellular MicroRNA in liquid biopsy: applicability in cancer diagnosis and prevention
.
Am J Cancer Res
.
2016
Jul
;
6
(
7
):
1461
93
.
[PubMed]
2156-6976
93.
Wang
K
,
Yuan
Y
,
Cho
JH
,
McClarty
S
,
Baxter
D
,
Galas
DJ
.
Comparing the MicroRNA spectrum between serum and plasma
.
PLoS One
.
2012
;
7
(
7
):
e41561
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
94.
Blondal
T
,
Jensby Nielsen
S
,
Baker
A
,
Andreasen
D
,
Mouritzen
P
,
Wrang Teilum
M
, et al
Assessing sample and miRNA profile quality in serum and plasma or other biofluids
.
Methods
.
2013
Jan
;
59
(
1
):
S1
6
.
[PubMed]
1046-2023
95.
van Schooneveld
E
,
Wouters
MC
,
Van der Auwera
I
,
Peeters
DJ
,
Wildiers
H
,
Van Dam
PA
, et al
Expression profiling of cancerous and normal breast tissues identifies microRNAs that are differentially expressed in serum from patients with (metastatic) breast cancer and healthy volunteers
.
Breast Cancer Res
.
2012
Feb
;
14
(
1
):
R34
.
[PubMed]
1465-5411
96.
Turchinovich
A
,
Weiz
L
,
Burwinkel
B
.
Extracellular miRNAs: the mystery of their origin and function
.
Trends Biochem Sci
.
2012
Nov
;
37
(
11
):
460
5
.
[PubMed]
0968-0004
97.
Cortez
MA
,
Bueso-Ramos
C
,
Ferdin
J
,
Lopez-Berestein
G
,
Sood
AK
,
Calin
GA
.
MicroRNAs in body fluids—the mix of hormones and biomarkers
.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
.
2011
Jun
;
8
(
8
):
467
77
.
[PubMed]
1759-4774
98.
Tsui
NB
,
Ng
EK
,
Lo
YM
.
Stability of endogenous and added RNA in blood specimens, serum, and plasma
.
Clin Chem
.
2002
Oct
;
48
(
10
):
1647
53
.
[PubMed]
0009-9147
99.
Funaki
NO
,
Tanaka
J
,
Kasamatsu
T
,
Ohshio
G
,
Hosotani
R
,
Okino
T
, et al
Identification of carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA in circulating peripheral blood of pancreatic carcinoma and gastric carcinoma patients
.
Life Sci
.
1996
;
59
(
25-26
):
2187
99
.
[PubMed]
0024-3205
100.
Souza
MF
,
Kuasne
H
,
Barros-Filho
MC
,
Cilião
HL
,
Marchi
FA
,
Fuganti
PE
, et al
Circulating mRNAs and miRNAs as candidate markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer
.
PLoS One
.
2017
Sep
;
12
(
9
):
e0184094
.
[PubMed]
1932-6203
101.
Silva
J
,
García
V
,
García
JM
,
Peña
C
,
Domínguez
G
,
Díaz
R
, et al
Circulating Bmi-1 mRNA as a possible prognostic factor for advanced breast cancer patients
.
Breast Cancer Res
.
2007
;
9
(
4
):
R55
.
[PubMed]
1465-5411
102.
Pucciarelli
S
,
Rampazzo
E
,
Briarava
M
,
Maretto
I
,
Agostini
M
,
Digito
M
, et al
Telomere-specific reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and cell-free RNA in plasma as predictors of pathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy
.
Ann Surg Oncol
.
2012
Sep
;
19
(
9
):
3089
96
.
[PubMed]
1068-9265
103.
Ishiba
T
,
Hoffmann
AC
,
Usher
J
,
Elshimali
Y
,
Sturdevant
T
,
Dang
M
, et al
Frequencies and expression levels of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in various cancer types
.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun
.
2018
Jun
;
500
(
3
):
621
5
.
[PubMed]
0006-291X
104.
Yuan
T
,
Huang
X
,
Woodcock
M
,
Du
M
,
Dittmar
R
,
Wang
Y
, et al
Plasma extracellular RNA profiles in healthy and cancer patients
.
Sci Rep
.
2016
Jan
;
6
(
1
):
19413
.
[PubMed]
2045-2322
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.