Background: Uterine cervical cancer is the fourth most common female cancer in the world. In Japan, we have an apparently low rate of joining cervical cancer screening programs compared with Western countries. Furthermore, the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer among the younger generation has been increasing. Object: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cytology in Japan. Methods: Collaborating with Saga City government, we initiated a cervical cancer screening system consisting of HPV testing and baseline cervical cytology from April 2011 as a social experiment. A total of 17,284 participants have been screened with this new combination system. Results: After HPV testing with cytology-based cervical cancer screening, the number of screenings done in women aged under 40 years has significantly increased. In addition, the number of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 has increased (25 of 14,025 vs. 146 of 23,049 under 50 years: p < 0.001). Conclusion: These data suggested that the introduction of HPV testing with cytology-based cervical cancer screening as an adjunct to conventional cytology resulted in better efficiency and more accurate screening among the Japanese population.

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