Objective: Differentiation between gynecomastia, a common cause of male breast enlargement, and breast cancer is crucial for appropriate management. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been shown to be sensitive and specific in assessing female breast lesions, comparable to core needle biopsy. Few such studies have been conducted in men. We assessed its diagnostic value in a male patient cohort. Study Design: Men who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for palpable breast lesions at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2007 to December 2016 were evaluated. Clinical data, radiographic findings, and cytologic diagnoses of 74 breast FNA from 71 men were reviewed. Breast aspirates were classified as nondiagnostic, benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant. Histology was obtained in 37 cases, and clinical and radiological data were used as follow-up in 37 patients. Results: Most FNA biopsies (73%) were performed by cytopathologists, and 93.2% of the breast FNA in men were adequate; 58% showed benign processes, mostly gynecomastia (n = 22), and 28.4% (n = 21) were malignant, most often ductal carcinoma. No false-positive cytologies were obtained, and there was 1 false-negative cytology. In our study, FNA of palpable male breast lesions was 95.8% sensitive and 100% specific. Conclusions: FNA allows sensitive, specific, and safe evaluation and diagnosis of palpable male breast lesions.

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