Objectives: The diagnostic performance of cytology in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is meticulously described. Methods: Cytological and biopsy specimens were prospectively taken during esophagogastroduodenoscopy of 123 individuals in 2013 and 2014. Cytology samples were maintained in preservative fluid until processing and biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Results: Based on endoscopic biopsy results, 70 cases were positive for ESCC whilst 53 were negative for cancer. In addition, brush cytology showed high sensitivity and specificity (98.57 and 96.23%, respectively) in detecting the disease, and high accuracy (97.5%) comparable to that provided by histopathology which is the accepted gold standard. Conclusion: Brush cytology specimens preserved in liquid medium may be a good alternative for ESCC diagnosis.