The cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV), mostly from β- and γ-HPV genus, is ubiquitously distributed throughout the human body and may be part of the commensal flora. The association of β-HPVs and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) development was initially reported in patients with the rare genetic disorder Epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Likewise, immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients have an increased susceptibility to β-HPV infections in the skin as well as to cSCC development. Although ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main risk factor of cSCC, experimental data points toward β-HPVs as co-carcinogens, which appear to be required solely at early stages of skin carcinogenesis by facilitating the accumulation of UVR-induced DNA mutations. Several epidemiological studies relying on different biomarkers of β-HPV infections have also been conducted in immunocompetent individuals to access their association with cSCC development. Additionally, in vivo and in vitro studies are presenting cumulative evidence that E6 and E7 proteins from specific β-HPVs exhibit transforming activities and may collaborate with different environmental factors in promoting carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, further research is crucial to better understand the pathological implications of the broad distribution of these HPVs.

Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.