Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of implementing 100% rapid review (100% RR) as a quality control tool in cervical smear cytology. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which cytology findings, false-negative results, and quality indicators were evaluated. The variables were analyzed in 2004, the year in which 100% RR was implemented, and again in 2013, i.e., 10 years on. Results: Detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) increased from 0.90% in 2004 to 2.47% in 2013 by routine screening. Detection of atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) increased from 13.33% in 2004 to 36.27% in 2013 by 100% RR. Detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) increased from 0.64% in 2004 to 4.29% in 2013 by routine screening, and increased from 0% in 2004 to 19.61% in 2013 by 100% RR. There was a significant increase (p = 0.00001) in the identification of false-negative results of ASC-US, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H, HSIL, and atypical glandular cells. All quality indicators had increased in 2013 when compared to 2004 results. Conclusions: Ten years after the implementation of the 100% RR method, improvements were found in the detection of atypia and precursor lesions and in quality indicators.

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