Objective: To investigate the diagnostic utility of endometrial (EM) cell block (CB) cytology for the detection of intrauterine malignancy in postmenopausal women. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 104 postmenopausal women between January 2012 and November 2014. We reviewed symptoms upon admission, body mass index, parity, transvaginal ultrasonographic findings, and histopathological results based on CB and conventional cytology. Results: The mean age was 62.6 (range 48-95) years. The mean menopausal age was 50.8 years and the mean duration of menopause was 12.0 years. The sensitivity of CB and conventional cytology was 82.3% (29/35) and 85.7% (30/35) and the specificity was 98.6% (68/69) and 94.2% (65/69), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CB cytology combined with conventional cytology were 82.3% (29/35) and 94.2% (65/69), respectively. The predictive values for EM hyperplasia and type-II carcinoma were 100 and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusion: CB cytology provides specimens for examination in a single outpatient session. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining can provide useful information for histological diagnosis. A combination of CB and conventional cytology can improve the diagnostic accuracy of EM lesions and may be a valid method for screening in postmenopausal women.

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