Objective: A vast majority of cervicovaginal intraepithelial lesions are caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The Pap test has been the sole method used for the screening of cervicovaginal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Recently, the FDA approved an HPV-DNA assay as a method of primary screening. We report on a series of FDA-approved HPV-DNA test-negative SIL with HPV genotyping, using an alternative method on the corresponding surgical biopsy specimens. Study Design: A retrospective review identified cytology-positive HPV-negative cases over a 15-month period at a tertiary care gynecologic oncology institution. Corresponding biopsies were reviewed and genotyped for high-risk HPVs. Results: Of the 18,200 total cases, 17 patients meeting the study criteria were selected with 27 surgical specimens corresponding to their cytologic diagnoses. Four patients with high-grade lesions were identified, 3 of whom (75%) were positive for HPV. One of these 4 patients (25%) showed high-grade SIL on biopsies from 4 separate sites in the cervix and vagina. Multiviral HPV infections were frequent. Conclusions: We discuss the relevance of cotesting for screening cervical SILs and emphasize that false-negative results are possible with the FDA-approved HPV screening assay, also in patients with high-grade SIL. These cases may be detectable by cytologic examination and this suggests that the Pap test remains an important diagnostic tool.

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