Objective: To evaluate whether or not the liquid-based procedure (LBP) for endometrial cytology is as worthwhile for endometrial phasing as conventional slides. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 81 women who underwent endometrial cytology and were defined as negative. The specimens obtained by either Endocyte® or Masubuchi aspiration tube® were processed first with the conventional procedure and then with LBP using TACAS™. Results: (1) The number of subjects diagnosed by the conventional method as having proliferative, mid-, middle-secretory and late-secretory and atrophic phases was 40, 11, 10, 0 and 20, respectively. The rate of agreement with those using LBP was 87.7%. (2) Incidences of large clusters, ductal clusters, palisade arrangement, uneven staining and dirty mucous background detected were significantly higher with the conventional method, whereas with LBP clean background, inconspicuous bonding of cells, scattered solitary glandular cells, clear well-stained cytoplasm and cell compactness were higher. (3) Especially in the proliferative phase, clusters tended to be smaller and lose their architectural structures, and scattered solitary columnar cells were present. (4) Cells in the mid-phase tended to have loose contact and to mimic other phases. Conclusions: Cytodiagnosis of endometrial phasing prepared with LBP is feasible to perform when some modifications are implemented.

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