Objective: To determine the associations between breast cancer recurrence and cytological findings of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Study Design: The study included 117 women who had undergone a modified radical mastectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. FNAC samples of these patients were reexamined, and cytological findings, such as cellular dissociation, nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear atypia, chromatin pattern, and nuclear size, were scored. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of the cytological findings. Corresponding cancer tissues were immunostained for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), p53, and E-cadherin to determine their associations with cytological findings. Coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 was also examined immunohistochemically as a cell locomotion signal. Results: Cellular dissociation (p = 0.0259) and nuclear size (p = 0.0417) were significantly associated with cancer recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that cellular dissociation and histological grade were significant independent predictors of cancer recurrence. Cellular dissociation was found to be associated with coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 (p = 0.0356) and HER2 (p = 0.0469). Conclusion: The cytological finding of cell dissociation was associated with the activation of Arp2 and WAVE2 signals and was an independent predictor of recurrence.

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